Notice: the WebSM website has not been updated since the beginning of 2018.

Web Survey Bibliography

Title Do respondents really "mark all that apply" on self-administered questions?
Source Public Opinion Quarterly (POQ), 58, 3, pp. 400-408
Year 1994
Access date 20.04.2013

The article presents an experiment conducted to assess the effect of using "mark all that apply," question instructions on survey reporting as part of the field test for the Second Follow-up of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 Eight Graders. The mark-all-that-apply instruction is used in questions asking about a set of respondent behavior. The mark-all-that-apply instructions are used in self-administered questionnaires and are generally considered to be functionally equivalent to the explicit yes/no instructions. The study asked respondents to think carefully about each item when they presented them with the explicit yes/no instructions. The study tested the hypothesis that the mark-all-that-apply instructions would result in fewer responses. The author manipulated the order of response the order of response options to see if the different instructions affected responding to items when they were placed at the top or the bottom of the list. Evidences suggested that respondent do not mark all that apply when instructed to do so in the survey. More responses are given when explicit yes/no instructions are used.

Access/Direct link

Journal Homepage (abstract) / (full text)

Year of publication1994
Bibliographic typeJournal article
Full text availabilityFurther details