Web Survey Bibliography

Title Effects of category order on answers in mail and telephone surveys
Source Rural Sociology, 60, 4, pp. 674-87
Year 1995
Access date 26.04.2013

Past research suggests that mail surveys encourage a primacy effect, which is a tendency to choose the first answers from a list, whereas telephone surveys encourage a recency effect, a tendency to choose the last answers from a list. This paper summarizes results from 82 new experiments conducted in 12 separate surveys in seven states. Only four of 33 mail survey comparisons exhibited significant primacy effects, while five of 26 experiments in telephone surveys exhibited recency effects. In addition, only three of 23 cross-method comparisons produced a significant primacy/recency effect in the expected manner. The conclusion is that the prevalence of primacy and recency effects has been over-estimated by past research and a new theoretical approach that takes into account multiple causation is needed for examining these effects.

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Year of publication1995
Bibliographic typeJournal article
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Web survey bibliography - 1995 (46)