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Web Survey Bibliography

Title Mode Effects in Mixed-Mode Surveys: Prevention, Diagnostics, and Adjustment 1
Author de Leeuw, E. D., Dillman, D. A., Schouten, B.
Year 2013
Access date 27.06.2013

Programme overview


Mixed-mode surveys have become a necessity in many fields. Growing nonresponse in all survey modes is forcing researchers to use a combination of methods to reach an acceptable response. Coverage issues both in Internet and telephone surveys make it necessary to adopt a mixed-mode approach. Furthermore, in international and cross-cultural surveys, differential coverage patterns and survey traditions across countries make a mixed-mode design inevitable.

From a total survey error perspective a mixed-mode design is attractive, as it is offering reduced coverage error and nonresponse error at affordable costs. However, measurement error may be increased when using more than one mode. This could be caused by mode inherent effects (e.g., absence or presence of interviewers) or by question format effects, as often different questionnaires are used for different modes.

In the literature, two kinds of approaches can be distinguished, aimed at either reducing mode effects in the design of the study or adjusting for mode effects in the analysis phase. Both approaches are important and should complement each other. The aim is to bring researchers from both approaches together to exchange ideas and results.

This session invites presentations that investigate how different sources of survey errors interact and combine in mixed mode surveys. We particularly invite presentations that discuss how different survey errors can be reduced (prevented) or adjusted for (corrected). We encourage empirical studies based on mixed-mode experiments or pilots. We especially encourage papers that attempt to generalize results to overall recommendations and methods for mixed-mode surveys.

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Year of publication2013
Bibliographic typeConference proceedings
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Web survey bibliography - Schouten, B. (20)