# Web Survey Bibliography

Title Bayesian Combining of Web Survey Data from Probability- and Non-Probability Samples for Survey Estimation

Year 2017

Access date 09.04.2017

Abstract Sample surveys are frequently used in the social sciences to measure and describe large populations. While probability-based sample surveys are considered the standard by which valid population-based inferences can be made, there has been increased interest in the use of non-probability samples to study public opinion and human behavior, particularly through web surveys. This increased interest is driven by multiple factors such as costs which can be significant when recruiting a probability-based sample. A second factor is the popularity of the web as a survey platform which has led to increased adoption of online access panels that can deliver cheaper and timelier survey results compared to traditional probability-based surveys. However, online access panels are heavily criticized because they do not employ probability sampling methods to recruit panel members, and therefore the mathematical probability theories that underlie valid statistical inference cannot be applied. While non-probability-based surveys are not ideal for making population-based inferences, their attractive cost properties make them potentially useful as a supplement to traditional probability-based data collection. In this paper, we examine this notion by combining probability and non-probability Web survey samples under a Bayesian framework. The Bayesian paradigm is well-suited for this situation as it permits the integration of multiple data sources, and a potential for increased precision in estimation. On the other hand, combining probability samples with non-probability samples that could be biased may offset gains in efficiency. Thus, there is likely to be a bias-precision tradeoff when combining probability- and non-probability samples. We examine this tradeoff using the German Internet Panel (GIP), a nationally-representative, probability-based web survey in combination with a set of non-probability-based web surveys that fielded a subset of the GIP questionnaire during the same time period. We apply the Bayesian combining framework to produce estimates of survey items and compare them to the probability-based estimates alone. We examine the accuracy and precision of the resulting survey estimates to determine whether combining the probability and non-probability samples yields valid inferences (and a likely cost savings) relative to the probability survey alone.

Access/Direct link Conference Homepage (abstract) / (full text)

Year of publication2017

Bibliographic typeConferences, workshops, tutorials, presentations

# Web survey bibliography - Germany (639)

- Interviewer effects on onliner and offliner participation in the German Internet Panel; 2017; Herzing, J. M. E.; Blom, A. G.; Meuleman, B.
- Comparing the same Questionnaire between five Online Panels: A Study of the Effect of Recruitment Strategy...; 2017; Schnell, R.; Panreck, L.
- Who fails and who passes instructed response item attention checks in web surveys?; 2017; Gummer, T.; Rossman, J.; Silber, H.
- Push2web or less is more? Experimental evidence from a mixed-mode population survey at the community...; 2017; Neumann, R.; Haeder, M.; Brust, O.; Dittrich, E.; von Hermanni, H.
- Social Desirability and Undesirability Effects on Survey Response latencies; 2017; Andersen, H.; Mayerl, J.
- Assessing Effects of Mixed-Mode Design in a Longitudinal Household Travel Survey; 2017; Weiss, C.; Chlond, B.; Minster, C.; Joedden, C.; Vortisch, P.
- Comparison of response patterns in different survey designs: a longitudinal panel with mixed-mode and...; 2017; Ruebsamen, N.; Akmatov, M. K.; Castell, S.; Karch, A.; Mikolajczyk, R. T.
- The Causal Effect of Survey Mode on Students’ Evaluations of Teaching: Empirical Evidence from...; 2017; Treischl, E.; Wolbring, T.
- Mobile Research im Kontext der digitalen Transformation; 2017; Friedrich-Freksa, M.
- Kognitives Pretesting; 2017; Neuert, C.
- Grundzüge des Datenschutzrechts und aktuelle Datenschutzprobleme in der Markt- und Sozialforschung; 2017; Schweizer, A.
- Continuity of Web-Survey Completion and Response Behavior; 2017; Karem Hoehne, J.; Schlosser, S.
- Exploring the Influence of Respondents' IT Literacy on Nonresponse in an Online Survey; 2017; Herzing, J. M. E.; Blom, A. G.
- Personalized Feedback in Web Surveys: Does It Affect Respondent Motivation and Data Quality?; 2017; Kuehne, S.; Kroh, M.
- No pay, no gain. The relationship between monetary and non-monetary motivation to participate in web...; 2017; Achimescu, V.; Keusch, F.; Liu, M.
- Understanding mobile respondents and their importance for representative samples: attitudes, behavior...; 2017; Livadic, D.; Badita, M.
- Learning from Mouse Movements: Improving Web Questionnaire and Respondents’ User Experience through...; 2017; Keusch, F.; Brockhaus, S.; Henninger, F.; Horwitz, R.; Kreuter, F.; Schierholz, M.
- Conversational Survey Frontends: How Can Chatbots Improve Online Surveys?; 2017; Harms, C.; Schmidt, S.
- Evaluation of Agree-Disagree Versus Construct-Specific Scales in a Multi-Device Web Survey; 2017; Kunz, T.
- Clarification features in close ended questions and their impact on scale effects; 2017; Metzler, A.; Fuchs, M.
- Focus on mobile surveys: Do the number of scale points and scale order affect rating scale results?; 2017; Kraemer, A.
- Device effects on behaviour and participation in mobile-optimised online diaries; 2017; Heeck, A.; Holdt, C.
- Smartphones as digital companions; 2017; Carolus, A.; Schneider, F.; Muench, R.; Schmidt, C.; Binder, J.
- Browsing vs. Searching – Exploring the influence of consumers’ goal directedness on website...; 2017; Dames, H.
- Determinants of Item Nonresponse in the German Internet Panel; 2017; Burgdorf, K.
- Does the Exposure to an Instructed Response Item Attention Check Affect Response Behavior?; 2017; Gummer, T.; Rossmann, J.; Silber, H.
- How Stable is Satisficing in Online Panel Surveys?; 2017; Rossmann, J.
- The good, the bad and the ugly data: using indicators to get high quality survey respondents from online...; 2017; Althaus, D.
- Searching for Equivalence: An Exploration of the Potential of Online Probing with Examples from National...; 2017; Meitinger, K.
- Read It From My Fingertips – Can Typing Behaviour Help Us to Predict Motivation and Answer Quality...; 2017; Hoermann, M.; Bannert, M.
- Pictures in Online Surveys: To Greet or Avoid?; 2017; Schmid, M.; Batinic, B.
- Asking for Consent to the Collection of Geographical Information; 2017; Felderer, B.; Blom, A. G.
- Comparing cross-cultural cognitive interviews and online probing for the assessment of cross-cultural...; 2017; Adriaans, J.; Weinhardt, M.
- Bayesian Combining of Web Survey Data from Probability- and Non-Probability Samples for Survey Estimation...; 2017; Sakshaug, J. W.; Wisniowski, A.; Perez-Ruiz, D.; Blom, A. G.
- Using In-Context-Testing to drive success of online display marketing; 2017; Schoenherr, S.; Lochstet, M.; Glenz, S.; Sommer, J.
- Mobility behaviour and smartphone usage of Millennials - capturing the moment-of-truth; 2017; Sauermann, J. A.; Einhorn, M.; Loeffler, M.
- Real-time-behavioral in sampling field work: Emotional state of the respondent; 2017; Friedrich-Freksa, M.; Luetters, H.; Vitt, S
- An ethical compass regarding privacy within a digital society; 2017; Prinzig, M.
- The role of privacy concerns and computer self-efficacy in online job applications; 2017; Ulfert, A. S.; Ott, M.; Bachmann, R.
- Analysis of the Ad-tech Industry Using Internet Browsing Data; 2017; Simbeck, K.; Malzahn, B.; Herm, S.
- Mapping the Field of Automated Data Collection in the Web. Data Types, Collection Approaches and their...; 2017; Juenger, J.
- The effect of horizontal and vertical scales on the response behavior when switching to a mobile first...; 2017; Brauch, C.; Blom, A. G.; Burgdorf, K.; John, M.; Keusch, F.
- Article Establishing an Open Probability-Based Mixed-Mode Panel of the General Population in Germany...; 2017; Bosnjak, M.; Dannwolf, T.; Enderle, T.; Schaurer, I.; Struminskaya, B.; Tanner, A.; Weyandt, K.
- Effects of Scale Direction on Response Style of Ordinal Rating Scales; 2017; Liu, M.; Keusch, F.
- Socially Desirable Responding in Web-Based Questionnaires: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Candor Hypothesis...; 2016; Gnambs, T.; Kaspar, K.
- Methodological Aspects of Central Left-Right Scale Placement in a Cross-national Perspective; 2016; Scholz, E.; Zuell, C.
- Predicting and Preventing Break-Offs in Web Surveys; 2016; Mittereder, F.
- Incorporating eye tracking into cognitive interviewing to pretest survey questions; 2016; Neuert, C.; Lenzner, T.
- Geht’s auch mit der Maus? – Eine Methodenstudie zu Online-Befragungen in der Jugendforschung...; 2016; Heim, R.; Konowalczyk, S.; Grgic, M.; Seyda, M.; Burrmann, U.; Rauschenbach, T.
- Using Paradata to Predict and Correct for Panel Attrition; 2016