Web Survey Bibliography

Title Smartphones Uses Trends 2013-2016: A Digital Divide Perspective
Year 2017
Access date 14.04.2017
Abstract

Relevance & Research Question: Online connectedness through mobile Smartphone is increasingly replacing regular internet access. Considering the rapid growth in smartphone usage, the purpose of this study is to examine the recreating and the dynamics of the 'second-level digital divide' (Hargittai, 2002) among Israeli Smartphone users. Second-level digital divide hinges to the possible usage gap of actual activities within various Smartphone applications, rather than access alone.

Methods & Data: This study compares data gathered from trend survey of four consecutive years (2013-2016). All surveys were based on a representative sample (n=550-567, maximum sample error 4.5%) of Israeli population aged 15 and above. Each survey included several repetitive questions regarding users' accessibility, usability, and evaluation of the smartphone. A usability Index was constructed, including ten items (Cronbach's Alpha >.8) that stood for various usages of Smartphone applications (e.g. Voice calls, short text messages and multimedia messages, pictures and video, social network, surfing the net).

Results: Our primary analysis focuses on the gap of Smartphones' usability, depending on variables such as gender, age, and education. Overall, we found a significant difference (F(549)=7.4, p<.001) between the Usability Index along the years (2013 to 2016); A swift increase was found mainly in Smartphone's use for web surfing (from 55% to 90%) and watching TV through Smartphone (from 18% to 42%). Whereas voice calls and sending text messages remained stable regarding use (85%-90%). We found a significant difference between men and females smartphones' usages; men average was found higher than females average usage. Also, we found a significant negative correlation between respondents' age and the Usability Index.

Added Value: Smartphones' settings comprise of a variety of potential activities (e.g. surfing, taking pictures, playing, texting, talking). Unlike other media, this dynamic environment results in different levels of usages depending on users' characteristics. Our findings imply that despite the apparent ubiquity of Smartphones nowadays, scholars should consider actual uses of the smartphone when examining the digital gap.

Year of publication2017
Bibliographic typeConferences, workshops, tutorials, presentations
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