Web Survey Bibliography
Title Challenges of Internet Recruitment: A Case Study with Disappointing Results
Source Journal of Medical Internet Research, 7, 1
Access date 24.04.2005
Full text doc (110k)
Abstract Background: The Internet provides tremendous opportunities for innovative research, but few publications on the use of the Internet for recruiting study participants exist. This paper summarizes our experiences from 2 studies in which we attempted to recruit teenagers on the Internet for a questionnaire study to evaluate a smoking-cessation website. Objective: To evaluate strategies of recruiting teenagers for the evaluation of a smoking-cessation website through the Internet. Methods: In Study 1 (Defined Community Recruitment), we sent invitation emails to registered members of a youth health website, CyberIsle. A total of 3801 email addresses were randomly divided into 2 groups. In the first group, emails indicated that the first 30 respondents would receive a Can $20 electronic gift certificate for use at an online bookstore if they would go to the Smoking Zine website and respond to a short survey. For the second group, the email also indicated that respondents would receive an additional Can $10 gift certificate if they referred their friends to the study. Reminder emails were sent 10 days after the sending of the initial invitation email. In Study 2 (Open Recruitment), we posted invitation messages on Web discussion boards, Usenet forums, and one specialized recruitment website, and attempted a snowball recruiting strategy. When potential participants arrived at the study site, they were automatically randomized into either the higher incentives group (Can $15 electronic gift certificate) or lower incentive group (Can $5 gift certificate). Results: In Study 1 (defined community recruitment), 2109 emails were successfully delivered. Only 5 subjects (0.24%), including 1 referred by a friend, passed the recruitment process and completed the questionnaire; a further 6 individuals visited the information page of the study but did not complete the study. In Study 2 (open recruitment), the number of users seeing the advertisement is unknown. A total of 35 users arrived at the website, of whom 14 participants were recruited (8 from the Can $15 gift certificate group and 6 from the Can $5 gift certificate group). Another 5 were recruited from the general Internet community (3 from discussion boards and 2 from the Research Volunteers website). The remaining 9 participants were recruited through friend referrals with the snowball strategy. Conclusions: Overall, the recruitment rate was disappointingly low. In our case, recruitment using Internet technologies including email, electronic discussion boards, Usenet forums, and websites did not prove to be an effective approach for soliciting young subjects to participate in our research. Possible reasons are discussed, including the participants’ perspective. A major challenge is to differentiate trustable and legitimate messages from spam and fraudulent misinformation on the Internet. From the researchers’ perspective, approaches are needed to engage larger samples, to verify participants’ attributes, and to evaluate and adjust for potential biases associated with Internet recruitment.
Access/Direct link Homepage - journal (full text)
Year of publication2005
Bibliographic typeJournal article
Web Survey Bibliography - Canada (110)
- Can a moral reasoning exercise improve response quality to surveys of healthcare priorities?; 2009; Johri, M.
- The Multi-Modal Future of Mobile Research: A Holistic Viewpoint; 2009; Cameron, M. R.
- Design Variations in Adaptive Web Sampling; 2008; Vincent, K. S.
- Effects of Pre-coding Response Options for Five Point Satisfaction Scale in Web Surveys; 2008; Callegaro, M., Wells, T., Kruse, Y.
- National Surveys Via RDD Telephone Interviewing vs. the Internet: Comparing Sample Representativeness...; 2008; Chang, L. C., Krosnick, J. A.
- Enhancing the Travel Survey Process and Data Using the CATI System ; 2008; Morency, C.
- Between random samples and online panels; 2008; Crassweller, A., Rogers, J.
- Client run panels & web 2.0; 2008; Byam, A., Smith, J., Sykes, E.
- Use of a website to evaluate quality of work-life and quality of life among community workers helping...; 2008; Dupuis, G.
- 2006 Canadian Census Internet Mode Effect Study; 2008; Grondin, C., Sun, L.,
- Response Audit of an Internet Survey of Health Care Providers and Administrators: Implications for Determination...; 2008; Dobrow, M. J., Orchard, M. C., Golden, B.; Holowaty, E., Paszat, L., Brown, A. D., Sullivan, T.
- Web survey and representativeness: Close to three in ten Canadians do not have access to the Internet...; 2007; Bourque, C., Lafrance, S.
- An Internet-Based Stated Choices Household Survey for Alternative Fuelled Vehicles ; 2007; Potoglou, D., Kanaroglou, P. S.
- ONLINE DATA COLLECTION – SOLUTION OR BAND-AID?; 2007; Crassweller, A., Williams, D., Thompson, I.
- An Approach to Compare Online Survey Generating Tools; 2007; Zhang, J., Zhao, N.
- Internet and written respiratory questionnaires yield equivalent results for adolescents; 2007; Raat, H.,Mangunkusumo, R. T., Mohangoo, A. D., Juniper, E. F., Van Der Lei, J.
- What Difference Do Guidelines Make? An Observational Study of Online-questionnaire Design Guidelines...; 2006; Lumsden, J., Flinn, S., Anderson, M., Morgan, W.
- Privacy laws, internet scams and other challenges affecting panel research Strategies to mitigate risk...; 2006; Stark, D.
- Efficient Multimode Data Collection; 2006; Dolson, D.
- Formative Evaluation and Three-Month Follow-Up of an Online Personalized Assessment Feedback Intervention...; 2006; Cunningham, J. A., Humphreys, K., Kypri, K., van Mierlo, T.
- Online-Questionnaire Design: Establishing Guidelines and Evaluating Existing Support; 2005; Lumsden, J., Morgan, W.
- Sex, gender and self-concept: Understanding Internet usage rates for relationship-building applications...; 2005; Hupfer, M. E., Detlor, B.
- Challenges of Internet Recruitment: A Case Study with Disappointing Results; 2005; Koo, M., Skinner, H.
- Understanding the question-answer process; 2004; Bradburn, N. M.
- Internet Versus Mailed Questionnaires: A Randomized Comparison (2); 2004; Leece, P., Bhandari, M., Swiontkowski, M., Schemitsch, E., Tornetta, P., Devereaux, P. J., Guyatt, G...
- Conducting market research using the Internet: the case of Xenon Laboratories; 2004; Lockett, A., Blackman, I.
- Nurses' autonomy: influence of nurse managers' actions; 2004; Mrayyan, M. T.
- Comparison of the quality of qualitative data obtained through telephone, postal and email surveys; 2004; Coderre, F., St-Laurent, N., Mathieu, A.
- Web/Electronic Surveys: Description of Electronic Data Reporting Processes at Statistics Canada (Past...; 2004; Dubois, M. A.
- Applying New Methodologies in a Longitudinal Study of Young Conservative Jews; 2004; Keysar, A., Kosmin, B.
- Ethical Dilemmas in Research on Internet Communities; 2004; Flicker, S., Haans, D., Skinner, H.
- Hotlists and Web browsing behavior - an empirical investigation; 2004; Thakor, M. V., Borsuk, W., Kalamas, M.
- The Canadian experience in developing an outdoor reach & frequency model. Getting from there to here...; 2003; Falbo, M. E., van der Burgt, J.
- First installation of a virtual CATI phone room with full telephony integration; 2003; Tanguay, L.
- Achieving high response rates on web-based surveys of post-secondary students; 2003; Nichols, L.B., Ghadialy, R.
- The Effects of Cash, Electronic, and Paper Gift Certificates as Respondent Incentives for a Web-Based...; 2003; Birnholtz, J. P., Horn, D. B., Finholt, T. A., Bae, S. J.
- Comparing Internet “River,” Internet; 2003; Feld, K. G.
- Design implementation of a Multimode Web Survey; 2003; Wine, S.J., Cominole, M.B., Carwile, D.S., Perry, K.
- Partnering with a Newspaper to Assess Community Opinion Online; 2003; Downs, E.P., Lindley, A.M.
- Implementing a Web Survey Administration System at the GAO; 2003; Feldesman, A.G.
- Using Internet-Based Surveys With Physicians, What Works and What Doesn't Work; 2003; Schneiderman, M., Thran, S., Adams, C., Lerner, B.
- Using RGI (Respondent Generated Interval) to gather factual information in a web survey; 2003; Lusinchi, P.D.
- Can What We Don’t Know (about “Don’t Know”) Hurt Us?: Effects of Item Non-response...; 2003; Krosnick, J. A., Behnke, C. S., Lafond, C.R., Thomas, R. K.
- Web-Based Surveys for Data Gathering from Medical Educators: An Exploration of the Efficacy and Impact...; 2002; Lee, C., Frank, J. R., Cole, G., Mikhael, N. Z., Miles, C. A.
- An Evaluation of Nonresponse Bias in Internet Surveys Conducted Using the Knowledge Networks Panel; 2002; Seryakova, K., Dennis, J. M., Huggins, V. J.
- Assessment of Mode-Effects in a Web-enabled Study of Civic Attitudes; 2002; Laird, G., Wiebe, E. F., Thalji, L., Pulliam, P.
- Government Perspective on Data Stewardship for Statistical Data; 2002; Brackstone, G., White, P.
- The Internet and Time Displacement: A Canadian Perspective; 2002; Pronovost, G.
- Privacy Perceptions and Online Practices; 2002; Viseu, A., Clement, A., Aspinall, J.
- The Digital Divide, Individuals and Governance: Opportunities and Challenges; 2002; Reddick, A.