Web Survey Bibliography
Title Challenges of Internet Recruitment: A Case Study with Disappointing Results
Source Journal of Medical Internet Research, 7, 1
Access date 24.04.2005
Full text doc (110k)
Abstract Background: The Internet provides tremendous opportunities for innovative research, but few publications on the use of the Internet for recruiting study participants exist. This paper summarizes our experiences from 2 studies in which we attempted to recruit teenagers on the Internet for a questionnaire study to evaluate a smoking-cessation website. Objective: To evaluate strategies of recruiting teenagers for the evaluation of a smoking-cessation website through the Internet. Methods: In Study 1 (Defined Community Recruitment), we sent invitation emails to registered members of a youth health website, CyberIsle. A total of 3801 email addresses were randomly divided into 2 groups. In the first group, emails indicated that the first 30 respondents would receive a Can $20 electronic gift certificate for use at an online bookstore if they would go to the Smoking Zine website and respond to a short survey. For the second group, the email also indicated that respondents would receive an additional Can $10 gift certificate if they referred their friends to the study. Reminder emails were sent 10 days after the sending of the initial invitation email. In Study 2 (Open Recruitment), we posted invitation messages on Web discussion boards, Usenet forums, and one specialized recruitment website, and attempted a snowball recruiting strategy. When potential participants arrived at the study site, they were automatically randomized into either the higher incentives group (Can $15 electronic gift certificate) or lower incentive group (Can $5 gift certificate). Results: In Study 1 (defined community recruitment), 2109 emails were successfully delivered. Only 5 subjects (0.24%), including 1 referred by a friend, passed the recruitment process and completed the questionnaire; a further 6 individuals visited the information page of the study but did not complete the study. In Study 2 (open recruitment), the number of users seeing the advertisement is unknown. A total of 35 users arrived at the website, of whom 14 participants were recruited (8 from the Can $15 gift certificate group and 6 from the Can $5 gift certificate group). Another 5 were recruited from the general Internet community (3 from discussion boards and 2 from the Research Volunteers website). The remaining 9 participants were recruited through friend referrals with the snowball strategy. Conclusions: Overall, the recruitment rate was disappointingly low. In our case, recruitment using Internet technologies including email, electronic discussion boards, Usenet forums, and websites did not prove to be an effective approach for soliciting young subjects to participate in our research. Possible reasons are discussed, including the participants’ perspective. A major challenge is to differentiate trustable and legitimate messages from spam and fraudulent misinformation on the Internet. From the researchers’ perspective, approaches are needed to engage larger samples, to verify participants’ attributes, and to evaluate and adjust for potential biases associated with Internet recruitment.
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Bibliographic typeJournal article
Year of publication2005
Web Survey Bibliography - Journal of Medical Internet Research (45)
- Online Survey on Twitter: A Urological Experience; 2013; Dal Moro, F.
- Telephone Versus Internet Administration of Self-Report Measures of Social Anxiety, Depressive Symptoms...; 2013; Hedman, E., Ljótsson, B., Blom, K., El Alaoui, S., Kraepelien, M., Rück, C., Andersson, G., Svanborg...
- Assessment of Diet and Physical Activity of Brazilian Schoolchildren: Usability Testing of a Web-Based...; 2013; da Costa, F. F., Pacheco Schmoelz, C., Fernandes Davies, V., Di Pietro, P. F., Kupek, E., de Assis,...
- Web-Based Versus Traditional Paper Questionnaires: A Mixed-Mode Survey With a Nordic Perspective; 2013; Hohwue, L., Lyshol, H., Gissler, M., Hrafn Jonsson, S., Petzold, M., Obel, C.
- Internet-Based Recruitment to a Depression Prevention Intervention: Lessons From the Mood Memos Study...; 2013; Morgan, A. J., Jorm, A. F., Mackinnon, A. J.
- Challenges for Researchers Investigating Contraceptive Use and Pregnancy Intentions of Young Women Living...; 2013; Herbert, D. L., Loxton, D., Bateson, D., Weisberg, E., Lucke, J. C.
- An Assessment of Incentive Versus Survey Length Trade-offs in a Web Survey of Radiologists; 2013; Ziegenfuss, J. Y., Niederhauser, B. D., Kallmes, D., Beebe, T. J.
- How Should Debriefing Be Undertaken in Web-Based Studies? Findings From a Randomized Controlled Trial...; 2012; McCambridge, J., Kypri, K., Wilson, A.
- Use of Web 2.0 to Recruit Australian Gay Men to an Online HIV/AIDS Survey; 2012; Theriault, N., Bi, P., Hiller, J. E., Nor, M.
- Conducting Research on the Internet: Medical Record Data Integration with Patient-Reported Outcomes; 2012; Cascade, E., Marr, P., Winslow, M., Burgess, A., Nixon, M.
- Clinicians’ Perspectives on a Web-Based System for Routine Outcome Monitoring in Old-Age Psychiatry...; 2012; Veerbeek, M. A., Voshaar, R. C. O., Pot, A. M.
- Active-Q: Validation of the Web-Based Physical Activity Questionnaire Using Doubly Labeled Water; 2012; Bonn, S. E., Trolle-Lagerros, Y., Christensen, S. E., Moeller, E., Wright, A., Sjoelander, A., Baelter...
- Validation of an Informant-Reported Web-Based Data Collection to Assess Dementia Symptoms; 2012; Rockwood, K., Zeng, A., Leibman, C., Mucha, L., Mitnitski, A.
- Web-Based Recruiting for Health Research Using a Social Networking Site: An Exploratory Study; 2012; Fenner, Y., Garland, P., Moore, E. E., Jayasinghe, Y., Fletcher, A., Tabrizi, S. N., Gunasekaran, B.,...
- Broad Reach and Targeted Recruitment Using Facebook for an Online Survey of Young Adult Substance Use...; 2012; Ramo, D. E., Prochaska, J. J.
- Impact of Length or Relevance of Questionnaires on Attrition in Online Trials: Randomized Controlled...; 2011; McCambridge, J., Kalaitzaki, E., White, I. R., Khadjesari, Z., Murray, E., Linke, S., Thompson, S. G...
- Methodological Issues in Internet-Mediated Research: A Randomized Comparison of Internet Versus Mailed...; 2011; Whitehead, L.
- Using web-based and paper-based questionnaires for collecting data on fertility issues among female...; 2011; Van Den Berg, M. H., Overbeek, A., van der Pal, H. J. H., Versluys, B. A., , Van Leeuwe, F. E. Lambalk...
- Development of a Web-Based Survey for Monitoring Daily Health and its Application in an Epidemiological...; 2011; Sugiura, H., Ohkusa, Y., Akahane, M., Sano, T., Okabe, N., Imamura, T.
- Bias in Online Recruitment and Retention of Racial and Ethnic Minority Men Who Have Sex With Men; 2011; Amsden, M., Coggia, T., DiClemente, R. J., Khosropour, C. M., Luisi, N., Sullivan, P. S., Wingood, G...
- A Comparison of Psychometric Properties Between Internet and Paper Versions of Two Depression Instruments...; 2010; Andersson, G., Engstroem, I., Hollaendare, F.
- The Influence of Response Mode on Study Results: Offering Cigarette Smokers a Choice of Postal or Online...; 2010; Callas, P. W., Solomon, L. J., Hughes, J. R., Livingston, A. E.
- The Touro 12-Step: A Systematic Guide to Optimizing Survey Research with Online Discussion Boards; 2010; Ip, E. J., Barnett, M. J., Tenerowicz, M. J., Perry, P. J.
- Effects of a Financial Incentive on Health Researchers’ Response to an Online Survey: a Randomized...; 2010; Wilson, P. M., Petticrew, M., Calnan, M., Nazareth, I.
- Response Audit of an Internet Survey of Health Care Providers and Administrators: Implications for Determination...; 2008; Dobrow, M. J., Orchard, M. C., Golden, B.; Holowaty, E., Paszat, L., Brown, A. D., Sullivan, T.
- No Increase in Response Rate by Adding a Web Response Option to a Postal Population Survey: A Randomized...; 2007; Brøgger, J., Nystad, W., Cappelen, I., Bakke, P.
- Use of the Internet to communicate with health care providers in the United States: Estimates from the...; 2007; Beckjord, E. B., Squiers, L., Arora, N. K., Volckmann, L., Moser, R. P., Hesse, B. W., Finney Rutten...
- Response rate and completeness of questionnaires: A randomized study of internet versus Paper-and-Pencil...; 2007; Holm- Christensen, K., Hjollund, H. N., , ; Basnov, M.; Kongsved, S.M.
- Following Up Nonrespondents to an Online Weight Management Intervention: Randomized Trial Comparing...; 2007; Couper, M. P., Peytchev, A.; Strecher, V., Rothert, K., Anderson, K. J.
- Psychological Assessment via the Internet: A Reliability and Validity Study of Online (vs Paper-and-...; 2007; Vallejo, M. A., Jordán, C. M., Díaz, M. I., Comeche, M. I., Ortega, J.
- Formative Evaluation and Three-Month Follow-Up of an Online Personalized Assessment Feedback Intervention...; 2006; Cunningham, J. A., Humphreys, K., Kypri, K., van Mierlo, T.
- Computers and the Internet: Tools for Youth Empowerment; 2005; Valaitis, R. K.
- Information Needs and Visitors' Experience of an Internet Expert Forum on Infertility; 2005; Himmel, W., Meyer, J., Kochen, M. M., Michelmann, H.-W.
- How New Subscribers Use Cancer-Related Online Mailing Lists; 2005; Rimer, B. K., Lyons, E. J., Ribisl, K. M., Bowling, J. M., Golin, C. E., Forlenza, M. J., Meier, A.
- Use of Internet Audience Measurement Data to Gauge Market Share for Online Health Information Services...; 2005; Wood, F. B., Benson, D., LaCroix, E.-M., Siegel, E. R., Fariss, S.
- Challenges of Internet Recruitment: A Case Study with Disappointing Results; 2005; Koo, M., Skinner, H.
- Swiss Community Pharmacies' on the Web and Pharmacists' Experiences with E-commerce: Longitudinal study...; 2004; Zehnder, S., Bruppacher, R., Ruppanner, H., Hersberger, K. E.
- Improving the Quality of Web Surveys: The Checklist for Reporting Results of Internet E-Surveys (CHERRIES...; 2004; Eysenbach, G.
- Will Web Surveys Ever Become Part of Mainstream Research?; 2004; Schonlau, M.
- Internet Versus Mailed Questionnaires: A Randomized Comparison (2); 2004; Leece, P., Bhandari, M., Swiontkowski, M., Schemitsch, E., Tornetta, P., Devereaux, P. J., Guyatt, G...
- Internet Versus Mailed Questionnaires: A Randomized Comparison; 2004; Ritter, P., Lorig, K., Laurent, D., Matthews, K.
- Feasibility of Collecting Diary Data From Asthma Patients Through Mobile Phones and SMS (Short Message...; 2004; Anhoej, J., Moeldrup, C.
- Online consumer surveys as a methodology for assessing the quality of the United States health care...; 2004; Bethell, C., Fiorillo, J., Lansky, D., Hendryx, M., Knickman, J.
- Survey of Doctors' Experience of Patients Using the Internet; 2002; Potts, H. W. W., Wyatt, J. C., Pagerey, P.D.
- Using the Internet for surveys and health research; 2002; Eysenbach, G., Wyatt, J. C.