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Web Survey Bibliography

Title The Influence of Words, Symbols, Numbers, and Graphics on Answers to Self-Administered Questionnaires: Results from 18 Experimental Comparisons
Source Washington State University
Year 2002
Access date 16.04.2004
Full text pdf (112k)
Abstract This paper reports results from 18 experimental comparisons designed to test 10 hypotheses about the effects of verbal language (words) and nonverbal languages (numbers, symbols, and graphics) on responses to self-administered questionnaires. The experiments were included in a large-scale survey of 1,042 university students. Significant differences were observed for most comparisons, providing support for nine of the ten hypotheses. The results confirm that people’s responses to questions in self-administered questionnaires are influenced by more than words. Thus, the visual composition of questions must be taken into consideration when designing such surveys and, especially, when comparing results across surveys in which the visual presentation of questions is varied.
Access/Direct link Homepage - Dillman (full text)
Year of publication2002
Bibliographic typeGeneric - other