Web Survey Bibliography
Title The Influence of Visual Layout on Scalar Questions in Web Surveys
Author Christian, L. M.
Access date 16.09.2004
Abstract This paper examines how the visual presentation of response choices influences answers to ordinal scale questions and extends previous experimentation on paper surveys to the Internet, to determine whether the results of varying scale layouts are similar or different. The web survey of a random sample of Washington State University students during Spring 2003 included two sets of experimental comparisons; 1591 completed surveys were submitted from the 3004 requested obtaining a response rate of 53%. One experiment included a response scale with all categories labeled and compared a vertical linear layout using four-five categories to three nonlinear layouts where categories were double- or triple-banked in columns across the page. A second set of experiments compared 5- and 6-point fully labeled scales to polar point scales where the verbal labels were removed for the middle three categories to an answer box format where respondents reported a number in an answer space. Multiple replications of each experiment indicate significant differences in the means between formats as well as significantly different response distributions. These findings on the web tend to confirm previous findings on paper questionnaires and suggest that respondents to both paper and web surveys are similarly affected by visual layout and presentation (Christian and Dillman, In Press, Public Opinion Quarterly, Spring 2004). Strong evidence now exists, that the visual presentation and layout of response scales influence respondent answers to self-administered questionnaires and need to be considered when designing public opinion questions and surveys that use ordinal scale questions. These construction differences appear to be important in helping surveyors understand why responses may vary across modes. The increasing use of mixed-mode surveys suggests the need to understand how the mode of communication, visual or aural, can influence how surveyors design questions and how respondents answer those questions.
Bibliographic typeConferences, workshops, tutorials, presentations
Year of publication2004
Web Survey Bibliography - 2004 (516)
- What respondents say they want; 2004; Poynter, R.
- Access panels, making the same mistake again?; 2004; Jong, K.
- Without interactive stimulus in digital surveys, you may as well throw your online panel investment...; 2004; Flynn, D.
- The respondent is in the driver's seat... are you going along for the ride?; 2004; Miller, J.
- Presuming pervasive internet access: The survey research paradigm in transition; 2004; Coates, D.
- The impact on interviewee behavior caused by audiovisual online-communication answering sensitive questions...; 2004; Muehlenfeld, H. -U.
- HISBUS Online-Panel: A virtual student village as an instrument for providing political advice and flash...; 2004; Muessig Trapp, P.
- Comparison of laboratory and online experiments: A research program; 2004; Ollesch, H., Heineken, E., Schulte, F. P.
- Paper and pencil or online? Methodological Experiences from an employee survey; 2004; Poetschke, M.
- Employee surveys via Internet or paper? The influence of administration mode, anonymity, voluntariness...; 2004; Reips, U. -D., Franek, L.
- Using web surveys in mixed-mode approaches: an experimental comparison with traditional survey modes; 2004; Riek, S., Rietz, C., Kruger, T.
- Teaching online methods in higher education - the study module "Experimental Psychology" as an example...; 2004; Schulte, F. P., Heineken, E., Ollesch, H.
- "What the h... are they doing?" - What are respondents doing while filling in an online-questionnaire...; 2004; Stieger, S.
- An Overview of Capabilities and Methodological Research Conducted by the Government and Academic Area...; 2004; Dennis, J. M.
- Probability Samples vs. Volunteer Respondents in Internet Research: Defining Potential Effects on Data...; 2004; Pineau, V., Slotwiner, D.
- R U There? Using Text Messaging as a method of contact in Wireless; 2004; Buskirk, T. D., Steeh, C. G.
- Qualitative Discussion Groups: An Online Contribution to Research Methods; 2004; Dammer, I.
- Motivations underlying the intention to participate in Internet-based research; 2004; Deutskens, E., Wetzels, M., de Ruyter, K.
- Online Experiments in Commercial Market Research; 2004; Nordmeyer, C. -F., Geissler, H., Donath, T.
- Online- and offline-employee surveys in theory and practice; 2004; Escher, C., Hauser, F.
- Do access panels really yield representative results?; 2004; Faas, T.
- Mode test of an online and paper employee satisfaction survey: Comparison of respondents and non-respondents...; 2004; Gesell, S. B., Burkholz, S. D., Standiford, M. J.
- Online-Surveys: Effects of different display formats, response orders as well as progress indicators...; 2004; Glauer, R., Schneider, D.
- What They See Is What We Get: Response Options for Web Surveys; 2004; Tourangeau, R., Crawford, S. D., Conrad, F. G., Couper, M. P.
- Stereotypic Response Patterns within Matrix Questions in Web Surveys; 2004; Gockenbach, S., Bosnjak, M., Goeritz, A.
- Material Incentives in Web Surveys: Two Meta-Analyses; 2004; Goeritz, A.
- Salutation, Power and behaviour in on-line panels; 2004; Joinson, A. N., Reips, U. -D.
- Web-based surveys in market and social research - usage and needs of different user groups in the EU; 2004; Kaczmirek, L., Bosnjak, M., Bandilla, W., Auer, T.
- Conceptual brand m@pping - A web-based method to elicit conceptual networks of brand knowledge and to...; 2004; Klein-Reesink, T.
- Website optimisation & controlling by benchmarking; 2004; Knapp, F.
- Application of image-based conjoint analysis on the internet; 2004; Koch, T.
- E-voting: participation, turn out, and digital divide; 2004; Oostveen, A.-M., Besselaar, P.
- The Effect of Motivating Elements on Response Strategies in Online Surveys; 2004; Boehme, R.
- Online and other methods of data collection in employee surveys: A comparison; 2004; Borg, I., Faulbaum, F.
- Are online-offline differences in personality test scores due to increased self-disclosure?; 2004; Buchanan, T., Joinson, A. N.
- A Comparison Between Responses From a Propensity-Weighted Web Survey and an Identical RDD Survey; 2004; Schonlau, M., Zapert, K., Simon, L.P., Sanstad, K., Marcus, S., Adams, J., Spranca, M., Kan, H., Turner...
- Telephone versus Internet samples for a national advisory referendum: are the underlying stated preferences...; 2004; Li, H., Berrens, R. P., Bohara, A. K., Silva, C. L., Weimer, D. L., Jenkins-Smith, H. C.
- Should We Trust Web-Based Studies? A Comparative Analysis of Six Preconceptions About Internet Questionnaires...; 2004; Gosling, S. D., Vazire, S., Srivastava, S., John, O. P.
- On the integration of the Internet into science communication; 2004; Barjak, F.
- Determinants of participitation in online access panels; 2004; Batinic, B.
- Spotting online influentials among business audiences. Using online research in viral marketing campaigns...; 2004; Cakim, I.
- Publishing survey reports with XML; 2004; MacKay, I.
- Fully automated quality monitoring; 2004; Lundgren, P., Nergard, A.
- Are the mobile phone users ready for MCASI - mobile computer assisted self interviewing?; 2004; Tjostheim, I., Thalberg, S.
- What you see is what you get: An international perspective in online survey design; 2004; Thomas, R. K.
- Website design is about understanding the user: How a modal theory of user experience can help develop...; 2004; Comley, P., Lang, J.
- “The full picture” – using eye tracking technology to make web site design more effective...; 2004; Barber, H., Janes, I.
- From e-surveys to e-interviews: how to use technology to interact more intelligently with respondents...; 2004; Loewe, G.
- Sampling: the next must-have for online market researchers; 2004; Luth, R.
- Online panels are the future!; 2004; Noyce, D.