Web Survey Bibliography
Title Open vs. closed questions in Web surveys
Access date 04.05.2004
Abstract Two quite different reasons for using open as opposed to closed questions can be distinguished. One is to discover the responses that individuals give spontaneously, the other is to avoid the bias that may result from suggesting responses to individuals. However, open questions have also their disadvantages in comparison to closed questions, such as need for extensive coding and larger item non-response. While this issue has already been well researched for traditional survey questionnaires, not much research has been devoted to it in recently used Web questionnaires. We therefore examine the differences between the two forms of survey questions by means of experiments within large-scale RIS 2001 Web survey. Three survey questions were asked in two forms in a split-ballot experiment: question on most frequently visited Slovenian and foreign Web sites, e-shops where respondents made some purchase, and the most important, critical problem the Internet is facing today. The results show that in all cases there were differences between question forms in univariate distributions, though no differences were found in the ranking of values. Closed questions in general yield higher percentages than open questions for the answers that are identical at both question forms. It seems that respondents restricted themselves with apparent ease to the alternatives offered on the closed form, whereas respondents on the open question produced a much more diverse set of answers. In addition, our results suggest that open questions produce more missing data than closed questions. Even more, there were more inadequate answers for open questions (e.g. respondents mention Slovenian Web pages on question on foreign Web pages or it is impossible to determine what the answer is about). This suggests that open questions should be more directive in wording (at least for Web surveys as self administered mode of data collection) as closed questions that are more specified with given response alternatives. We also found out that when respondents were asked about a more salient topic the differences between open and closed form were smaller. In this case both forms of questions were equivalent.
Access/Direct link Homepage - conference (abstract)
Bibliographic typeConferences, workshops, tutorials, presentations
Year of publication2002
Web Survey Bibliography - 2002 (421)
- Response rate, speed, and completeness: A comparison of Internet-based and mail surveys; 2002; Truell, A. D., Bartlett, J. E., Alexander, M. W.
- From Mail to Web: Improving Response Rates and Data Collection Efficiencies; 2002; Crawford, S. D., McCabe, S. E., Couper, M. P., Boyd, C. J.
- Integrating paper and web instrument development to enhance efficiency and standardization; 2002; House, C. C.
- Composite Estimators for Complex Sampling; 2002; Nicolini, G., Presti, A. L.
- AESDirect. Internet Data Collection of U.S. Export Information; 2002; Horner, G. J.
- A Comparison Between Mail and Web Surveys: Response Pattern, Respondent Profile, and Data Quality; 2002; Kwak, N., Radler, B.T.
- Beyond logs and surveys: In-depth measures of people's Web use skills; 2002; Hargittai, E.
- Problems Confronting Japanese Marketing Research Industry: Report of Attitude Study Findings from Research...; 2002; Kobayashi, K.
- Have Telephone Surveys a Future in the 21-th century?; 2002; de Leeuw, E. D., Lepkowski, J. M., Kim, S. -W.
- Employing a mixed-mode qualitative research method prior to conducting quantitative research; 2002; Metzler, D. P., Davis, P. C.
- Evaluation of neural networks to detect suspicious answers in attitude and evaluation research; 2002; Martini, M. C.
- Design of Web Survey Questionnaires: Three Basic Experiments; 2002; Lozar Manfreda, K., Batagelj, Z., Vehovar, V.
- Do it yourself, Web-style; 2002; Glowa, T.
- Using phone methods in a digital age; 2002; Fitzgerald, A.
- Designing a Strategy for Reducing "No Opinion" Responses in Web-Based Surveys; 2002; de Rouvray, C., Couper, M. P.
- Characteristics of the Discussion in Online and Face-to-Face Focus Groups; 2002; Schneider, S. J., Kerwin, J., Frechtling, J., Vivari, B. A.
- Get your conjoint online, in several flavors; 2002; Deal, K.
- Think before you dial; 2002; Gillin, D. L.
- Developing and validating an instrument for measuring user-perceived web quality; 2002; Aladwani, A. M., Palvia, P. C.
- Post-industrial transformations and cyber-space: a cross-national analysis of Internet development; 2002; Robison, K. K., Crenshaw, E. M.
- Calling all customers; 2002; Long, J., Whinston, A. B., Tomak, K.
- Citizen Surveys on the Web: General Population Surveys of Community Opinion; 2002; Miller, T. I., Miller Kobayashi, M., Caldwell, E., Thurston, S., Collett, B.
- Methods of Internet data collection and implications for recruiting respondents; 2002; Roos, M.
- Online, but on target? Internet-based MBA courses; 2002; McGorry, S. Y.
- An Internet survey for perceptions of computers and the World Wide Web: relationship, prediction, and...; 2002; Shu Shenga, L.
- Social Networks of Intensive Internet Users; 2002; Hlebec, V., Lozar Manfreda, K., Vehovar, V.
- Attitudes toward Internet Privacy: Slovenian Internet users's view; 2002; Kovacic, M., Vehovar, V.
- A Comparison of Quality in Open-end Responses and Response Rates Between Web-based and Paper and Pencil...; 2002; MacElroy, B., Mikucki, J., McDowell, P.
- Use of Pre-incentives in an Internet Survey; 2002; Downes-Le Guin, T., Janowitz, P., Stone, R., Khorram, S.
- Internet loyalty programs: Lessons learned for Internet-based development research; 2002; Moskowitz, H., Khubani, A., Stanley, J.
- Establishing data validity in conjoint: Experiences with Internet-based ‘mega-studies’; 2002; Moskowitz, H., Moskowitz, J., Beckley, J., Mascuch, T., Adams, J., Sendros, A., Keeling, C.
- Personality research on the Internet: A comparison of Web-based and traditional instruments in take-...; 2002; Cronk, B. C., West, J. L.
- SurveyMonkey.com - Web-Based Survey and Evaluation System: http://www.SurveyMonkey.com; 2002; Gordon, A.
- Innovations in Survey Research: An Application of Web-Based Surveys; 2002; Sills, S.J., Song, C.
- Online survey techniques: Current issues and future trends; 2002; Comley, P.
- Online Longitudinal Survey Research: Viability and Participation; 2002; Hiskey, S., Troop, N.A.
- Online Surveys and Internet Research; 2002; Comley, P.
- Work-life balance among Croatian employees: role time commitment, work-home interference and well-being...; 2002; Sverko, B.B., Araasic, L., Galesic, M.
- BOOK REVIEW: Internet communications and qualitative research: A hand-book for research online; 2002; Dowling, Z.
- Data collection through web-based technology; 2002; Swartz, R.W., Hancock, C.
- Print versus electronic surveys: a comparison of two data collection methodologies; 2002; Boyer, K. K., Olson, J., Calantone, R. J., Jackson, E. C.
- Online Data Collection; 2002; Topp, N.W., Pawloski, B.
- PRESTO: Combining Internet survey methodologies with a student panel; 2002; Prince, K., Woodley, A., Joinson, A. N.
- The Internet and Time Displacement: A Canadian Perspective; 2002; Pronovost, G.
- The Good, The Bad, And The Ugly. Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Research; 2002; Puig, M.
- Daily Activity and Internet Use in Dual-Earner Families: A Weekly Time-Diary Approach; 2002; Fu, S.- J., Wang, R., Qui, Y.
- Navigation Patterns in Web Surveys; 2002; Ramirez, C. M.
- The Use of Online Market Research in Stakeholder Relationship Management; 2002; Reichmann, S.
- Open vs. closed questions in Web surveys; 2002; Reja, U., Lozar Manfreda, K., Hlebec, V., Vehovar, V.
- Restricted privacy: Information privacy as a culture-specific construct; 2002; Ribak, R.