Web Survey Bibliography
Title Salutation, Power and behaviour in on-line panels
Author Joinson, A. N., Reips, U. -D.
Access date 10.05.2004
Abstract In the present paper, 4 experiments are outlined that examine context effects in signing up to a panel, and subsequent maintenance of membership and completion of surveys. In Study 1, N=10,000 Open University students were invited to join a panel by the vice-chancellor of the University. They were addressed as either 'Dear Forename', 'Dear Forename Surname', 'Dear Student' or 'Dear Open University Student' (each n=2500). Significantly more people joined the panel if addressed as 'Dear Forename' compared to 'Dear Student' or 'Dear Open University Student'. In Study 2, the salutation effect was tested on a second panel using an invitation to leave the panel (sent by the vice-chancellor). In this case, significantly more people left the panel when addressed as 'Dear Student' than 'Dear Forename', signalling that the salutation effect is not merely a superficial response, but is due to a deeper psychological process such as identification with the organization or strategic behaviour. In Study 3, panel members (n=1405) were asked by a neutral power person to participate in a survey, with a diffusion of responsibility (group size) manipulation. No effect of salutation or group size on response rates was found (mean response rate: 82%). However, there was a significant interaction between the salutation used when invited to join the panel (Study 1) and that used on the first invitation, on response rates and motivation measures. In Study 4, salutation and power were manipulated within the same experiment. A strong salutation effect was found when power of the sender was high, and not when power of the sender was neutral. Conforming with the social identity model of de- individuation (SIDE) it is argued that for this sample, responsibility and identifiability linked to create a strategic imperative to join and maintain membership of an online panel. Future studies will examine the impact of power and status of the sender, strategic behaviour and socially desirable responding in online surveys.
Access/Direct link Homepage - conference (abstract)
Year of publication2004
Bibliographic typeConferences, workshops, tutorials, presentations
Web Survey Bibliography - 2004 (512)
- Presuming pervasive internet access: The survey research paradigm in transition; 2004; Coates, D.
- The impact on interviewee behavior caused by audiovisual online-communication answering sensitive questions...; 2004; Muehlenfeld, H. -U.
- HISBUS Online-Panel: A virtual student village as an instrument for providing political advice and flash...; 2004; Muessig Trapp, P.
- Comparison of laboratory and online experiments: A research program; 2004; Ollesch, H., Heineken, E., Schulte, F. P.
- Paper and pencil or online? Methodological Experiences from an employee survey; 2004; Poetschke, M.
- Employee surveys via Internet or paper? The influence of administration mode, anonymity, voluntariness...; 2004; Reips, U. -D., Franek, L.
- Using web surveys in mixed-mode approaches: an experimental comparison with traditional survey modes; 2004; Riek, S., Rietz, C., Kruger, T.
- Teaching online methods in higher education - the study module "Experimental Psychology" as an example...; 2004; Schulte, F. P., Heineken, E., Ollesch, H.
- "What the h... are they doing?" - What are respondents doing while filling in an online-questionnaire...; 2004; Stieger, S.
- An Overview of Capabilities and Methodological Research Conducted by the Government and Academic Area...; 2004; Dennis, J. M.
- Probability Samples vs. Volunteer Respondents in Internet Research: Defining Potential Effects on Data...; 2004; Pineau, V., Slotwiner, D.
- R U There? Using Text Messaging as a method of contact in Wireless; 2004; Buskirk, T. D., Steeh, C. G.
- Qualitative Discussion Groups: An Online Contribution to Research Methods; 2004; Dammer, I.
- Motivations underlying the intention to participate in Internet-based research; 2004; Deutskens, E., Wetzels, M., de Ruyter, K.
- Online Experiments in Commercial Market Research; 2004; Nordmeyer, C. -F., Geissler, H., Donath, T.
- Online- and offline-employee surveys in theory and practice; 2004; Escher, C., Hauser, F.
- Do access panels really yield representative results?; 2004; Faas, T.
- Mode test of an online and paper employee satisfaction survey: Comparison of respondents and non-respondents...; 2004; Gesell, S. B., Burkholz, S. D., Standiford, M. J.
- Online-Surveys: Effects of different display formats, response orders as well as progress indicators...; 2004; Glauer, R., Schneider, D.
- What They See Is What We Get: Response Options for Web Surveys; 2004; Tourangeau, R., Crawford, S. D., Conrad, F. G., Couper, M. P.
- Stereotypic Response Patterns within Matrix Questions in Web Surveys; 2004; Gockenbach, S., Bosnjak, M., Goeritz, A.
- Material Incentives in Web Surveys: Two Meta-Analyses; 2004; Goeritz, A.
- Salutation, Power and behaviour in on-line panels; 2004; Joinson, A. N., Reips, U. -D.
- Web-based surveys in market and social research - usage and needs of different user groups in the EU; 2004; Kaczmirek, L., Bosnjak, M., Bandilla, W., Auer, T.
- Conceptual brand m@pping - A web-based method to elicit conceptual networks of brand knowledge and to...; 2004; Klein-Reesink, T.
- Website optimisation & controlling by benchmarking; 2004; Knapp, F.
- Application of image-based conjoint analysis on the internet; 2004; Koch, T.
- E-voting: participation, turn out, and digital divide; 2004; Oostveen, A.-M., Besselaar, P.
- The Effect of Motivating Elements on Response Strategies in Online Surveys; 2004; Boehme, R.
- Online and other methods of data collection in employee surveys: A comparison; 2004; Borg, I., Faulbaum, F.
- Are online-offline differences in personality test scores due to increased self-disclosure?; 2004; Buchanan, T., Joinson, A. N.
- Telephone versus Internet samples for a national advisory referendum: are the underlying stated preferences...; 2004; Li, H., Berrens, R. P., Bohara, A. K., Silva, C. L., Weimer, D. L., Jenkins-Smith, H. C.
- Should We Trust Web-Based Studies? A Comparative Analysis of Six Preconceptions About Internet Questionnaires...; 2004; Gosling, S. D., Vazire, S., Srivastava, S., John, O. P.
- On the integration of the Internet into science communication; 2004; Barjak, F.
- Determinants of participitation in online access panels; 2004; Batinic, B.
- Spotting online influentials among business audiences. Using online research in viral marketing campaigns...; 2004; Cakim, I.
- Publishing survey reports with XML; 2004; MacKay, I.
- Fully automated quality monitoring; 2004; Lundgren, P., Nergard, A.
- Are the mobile phone users ready for MCASI - mobile computer assisted self interviewing?; 2004; Tjostheim, I., Thalberg, S.
- What you see is what you get: An international perspective in online survey design; 2004; Thomas, R. K.
- Website design is about understanding the user: How a modal theory of user experience can help develop...; 2004; Comley, P., Lang, J.
- “The full picture” – using eye tracking technology to make web site design more effective...; 2004; Barber, H., Janes, I.
- From e-surveys to e-interviews: how to use technology to interact more intelligently with respondents...; 2004; Loewe, G.
- Sampling: the next must-have for online market researchers; 2004; Luth, R.
- Online panels are the future!; 2004; Noyce, D.
- Internet-Usage within a Delphi-study; 2004; Balzer, L.
- User and Non-user Behaviour - Illustrated by the largest Internet Retailer; 2004; Ergenzinger, R., Bamert, T.
- The impact of web page text-background colour combinations on readability, retention, aesthetics and...; 2004; Hall R. H., Hanna, P.
- An Examination of the Equivalence of Web-Based Versus Paper-and-Pencil Upward Feedback Ratings: Rater...; 2004; Smither, J.W., Walker, A.G., Yap, M.K.T.
- The role of metadata in the Statistical Knowledge Network - An emerging research agenda; 2004; Denn, S., Hs, S.W., Hert, C. A.