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Web Survey Bibliography

Title Differences in Early and Late Responders: Findings from a Military Web-Based Community Survey.
Year 2010
Access date 30.06.2011

Several recent studies have investigated the relationship between survey response time (i.e., early or late response), respondent demographic characteristics and their answers to key survey questions, as well as the impact of survey reminder follow-up. These studies have shown that early and late responders often differ in their demographic characteristics as well as in their responses to key attitudinal questions. Often the highest response rate increase follows the initial invitation and various reminder methods, including reminder emails or follow-up mailings which are used to increase response rates throughout the duration of the fielding period. It is important to understand the impact of gathering additional “late” responses through such follow-up campaigns on any potential nonresponse bias. This study examines the results of an anonymous web-based survey, deployed by ICF International, of U.S. Air Force (USAF) Active Duty and civilian spouses at 80 USAF bases worldwide. During the eight-week fielding period, Active Duty members received survey invitations and eight reminders sent via email. Spouses received a 8.5” X 5.5” invitation postcard followed by two 6” X 4” postcard reminders. A total of 56,135 Active Duty members responded, 78% within the first four weeks and 22% in the last four weeks, and a total of 12,342 civilian spouses responded, 64% within the first four weeks, and 36% in the last four weeks. For Active Duty, the average late responder was more likely to be of lower enlisted grade (E1-E4) and female, while no differences were found between demographics among spouses. Both Active Duty and spouse late responders were more likely to rate community and personal satisfaction more positively than early responders. These results suggest that early and late responders may differ, and such potential differences should be considered when designing survey administration fielding and incorporating reminders to encourage the non-respondent population to participate.

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Conference Homepage (abstract)

Year of publication2010
Bibliographic typeConferences, workshops, tutorials, presentations