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Web Survey Bibliography

Title Effects of Response Formats when Measuring Attitudes in Consumer Web Surveys Across Markets.
Year 2011
Access date 27.07.2011

Previous studies suggest different response format ariations (e.g., order of response options) produce different effects in different cultures. In addition, there are cultural variations in the use of extreme response options and acquiescence. Combined, these effects could produce quite different distributions when comparing results of satisfaction measures across countries. This study investigates the effects of horizontally flipping response scales in online consumer surveys across three different countries, China (n=1896), Japan (n=1222), and the United States (n=3673). Given the strong left-right orientation in Western societies, we expected stronger effects for the U.S. than for China and Japan. Users who opted into a survey linked from the Google Maps interface were presented with either one of two seven-point satisfaction ratings; ‗extremely satisfied‘ to ‗extremely dissatisfied‘ or ‗extremely dissatisfied‘ to ‗extremely satisfied.‘ Findings point to a higher selection rate for the first response options across all three countries, yielding higher rates of satisfaction when the positive response is presented first. The effect on the negative end of the scale (‗extremely dissatisfied‘) appears to be similar across all three countries. However, in China and Japan the effect of response order is also apparent on the positive end of the scale (‗extremely satisfied‘), while the effect in the U.S. is considerably smaller. We report on the detailed results and discuss the implications for conducting cross-national or cross-cultural research.


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Year of publication2011
Bibliographic typeConferences, workshops, tutorials, presentations