Notice: the WebSM website has not been updated since the beginning of 2018.

Web Survey Bibliography

Title Evaluation of a Sequential Mixed-Mode Design Experiment with Physicians on Response Rates, Costs, and Response Bias
Year 2013
Access date 31.05.2013

While Web surveys are generally less expensive than data collection by mail, they have not been shown to be successful at achieving high response rates with physicians. In comparisons of single-mode physician surveys, Web surveys typically have lower response rates than other modes (Van Geest, 2007). Similarly, research on concurrent mixed-mode surveys with physicians has found that the use of a Web option does not increase survey responses compared to mail alone (McFarlane, 2009). However, a recent meta-analysis of mixed-mode general population surveys found that offering sequential mixed modes (offering only one mode at a time) compared to concurrent mixed modes (offering only more than one mode at the same time) can yield higher responses rates (Fulton, 2012). Our study evaluated a sequential mixed-mode design experiment conducted on a nationally representative sample of 4,700 board-certified physicians. Recent research with physicians shows that physicians are adopting mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets at increasing rates. Therefore the Web survey was optimized so that it could be completed on mobile devices as well as computers. Half of the sample received an initial paper survey via mail followed by up to three mail-only nonresponse follow-ups. The other half of the sample received an initial survey invitation via email with up to two email reminders. Nonresponders to the Web survey were then sent up to three paper survey follow-ups. The three paper survey follow-ups were identical in both groups. In this paper, we compare the effect of the two mixed-mode designs on responses rates, overall costs, and costs per complete. In addition, we examined mode differences and potential effects of response bias between the two groups. This work has implications for researchers designing studies with physicians to find an optimum balance between costs and response rates.

Access/Direct link

Conference Homepage (abstract)

Year of publication2013
Bibliographic typeConferences, workshops, tutorials, presentations